Petroleum product

From Pan Oil Energy India (P) Ltd (OIL REFINERY)

A petrochemical refinery in Pan Oil India Limited (PIL).

Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, and Aromatic Complex, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels.[1]

According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuelsinclude or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a few percent sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization.


Specialty and products

A breakdown of the products made from a typical barrel of US Oil

Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars.

  • Gaseous fuels such as propane, stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors.
  • Lubricants (produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required), usually shipped in bulk to an offsite packaging plant.
  • Paraffin wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. May be shipped in bulk to a site to prepare as packaged blocks.
  • Slack wax, a raw refinery output comprising a mixture of oil and wax used as a precursor for scale wax and paraffin wax and as-is in non-food products such as wax emulsions, construction board, matches, candles, rust protection, and vapor barriers.
  • Sulfur, byproduct of sulfur removal from petroleum, which contain percent of organosulfur compounds.
  • Bulk tar shipping for offsite unit packaging for use in tar-and-gravel roofing or similar uses.
  • Asphalt - used as a binder for gravel to form asphalt concrete, which is used for paving roads, lots, etc. An asphalt unit prepares bulk asphalt for shipment.
  • Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products such as certain types of electrodes, or as solid fuel.
  • Petrochemicals or petrochemical feedstocks. Petrochemical are organic compounds that are the ingredients for the chemical industry, ranging from polymers and pharmaceuticals. Representative petrochemicals are ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes ("BTX").


Petroleum by-products

Over 6,000 items are made from petroleum waste by-products including: Fertilizer, Linoleum, Perfume, Insecticide, Petroleum Jelly, Soap, and Vitamin Capsules. See link to partial list of 144 by-products listed by (PIL).

Sample of Crude oil(petroleum)
Cylinders of Liquified petroleum gas
Sample of Gasoline
Sample of Kerosene
Sample of Diesel fuel
Motor oil
Pile of asphalt-covered aggregate for formation into asphalt concrete